The Peruvian Amazon – Manu National Park
AMAZON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY:
Biological diversity or biodiversity is the variability of living organisms from any source including all terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, the diversity of species, of genes, and all the ecological complexes of which they are a part in the Manu National Park. (Convention on Biological Diversity Manu Park, 1992).
Other important definitions are:
Genetic diversity – Manu Jungle: Variability within each species, measured by the variation of genes (chemical units of hereditary information, transmitted from one generation to another) of a species, subspecies, variety or hybrid.
Diversity of species – Manu Jungle: Variation of species on earth. It is measured at the local, regional or global level. Thus, the diversity of species in our forests is expressed by the taxonomic variety of birds, amphibians, mammals, butterflies, reptiles, fish, insects, etc.
Diversity of ecosystems – Manu Jungle: Community of organisms in their physical environment interacting as an ecological unit. It includes different types of habitats, landscapes and ecological processes.
Cultural diversity – Manu Jungle: different living cultures (of indigenous peoples or others) that selectively use resources and propagate some of them artificially, also possess important knowledge about use, properties and management techniques.
STRATEGY OF THE BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY FOR AMAZONAS OF THE MANU NATIONAL PARK:
A strategy is a tool widely used in planning in manu park, which serves to guide, order and prioritize actions leading to the achievement of proposed objectives. In matters of biological diversity, Law No. 26839, on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity, in its Article 7, declares the National Strategy for Biodiversity (ENDB) as the main planning tool at the national level, especially for the fulfillment of the objectives of the CBD, of which Peru is a signatory for trips to the jungle.
The Law states that the strategies, programs and plans of the NBT must be formulated in a participatory manner, including its results in priority order in the development policies of the MANU. The ENDB became the fundamental framework for the creation of more characterized strategies, giving rise to the Regional Strategy of the Amazonian Biological Diversity (ERDBA MANU PARK LODGE) published in 2001, and whose development, added to the subsequent process of national decentralization made it possible to identify that although some of the processes correspond to the Amazonian area, most of its implementation must be carried out at the local level, which demonstrates the need to elaborate departmental strategies with specific action plans and adapted for each region in the region. .
In this way, the development of the Amazon Biological Diversity Regional Strategy in manu (ERDB Amazonas) is proposed, based on the Amazonian strategy, which will serve as a guiding tool for activities focused not only on reversing the processes of deterioration of the resources of the Amazon. biodiversity, but also to guide the use of the goods and services that these resources provide for the inhabitants of the Peruvian Amazon.
It should be noted that this process is supported by the Organic Law of Regions (Law No. 27867, amended by Law No. 27902 in its article 53º clause “c”), which grants regional governments powers to formulate, coordinate, conduct and supervise the application of the Regional Strategies of Biological Diversity of manu within the framework of the respective National Strategy. In this process, the main actors responsible for developing and implementing the strategy are: the regional government, local governments, the public sector, the private sector, grassroots organizations, non-governmental organizations (MANU NGO), national investors and foreigners, political organizations, international cooperation, educational institutions, research institutes, professional associations, chambers of commerce and tourism, the media, and the population of Amazonas in Peru.
PROCESS OF THE REGIONAL STRATEGY OF THE BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF AMAZONAS IN PERU:
The elaboration of the ENDB was carried out between 1997 and 2001, through the National Technical Committee chaired by the National Environment Council (CONAMANU), and 15 Regional Focal Points, composed of governmental and non-governmental entities, among which the department of Amazonas was not prioritized.
Due to the importance of the Amazon region for national and global biodiversity, the process of developing the ERDBA – MANU JUNGLE, initiated by the Focal Points of the Amazonian departments of Loreto, Ucayali, San Martín and Madre de Dios, also begins. with the facilitation of the Research Institute of the Peruvian Amazon (IIAP), through the Biological Diversity Project of the Peruvian Amazon – BIODAMAZ, which, having the framework of the ENDB, also did not include the department of Amazonas.
Knowing this process and the environmental reality in the Amazon region, the Regional Government and the BIODAMAZ project considered a similar process of raising awareness about the resources of regional biodiversity as a priority need, resulting in policy proposals and activities for guide the conservation and sustainable use of resources in the Manu region.
In this way, after several work meetings, Amazonas initiates the process for the elaboration of its Regional Strategy of Biological Diversity of the manu national park, through workshops that were carried out during the year 2004. The first participatory workshop was held in the Chachapoyas city between October 21 and 22, 2004; the second, between February 2 and 3, 2005 in Santa María de Nieva; the third was on March 19, 2005 in Yambrasbamba, and the fourth between May 11 and 12, 2005 in the city of Bagua – Jungle Trips. They identified the problems generated by the precariousness of the development of strategic models, which were aimed at improving and guiding, as well as training on biological diversity in the Region. The principle consisted in the treatment of the problems with concerted and articulated measures between the various actors of the State and civil society. Following this principle, at the beginning of the process the Amazonas CAR – Amazonas Regional Environmental Commission, generates the formation of the Amazonian Biological Diversity Technical Group, approved by Regional Ordinance N ° 063-2004-Regional Government of Amazonas / CR, with the purpose of elaborate and implement the Amazon ERDB of the manu national park.
The activities were promoted by the Regional Government through the Natural Resources Management and Environmental Management, the CONAM through the Regional Executive Secretary SER Cajamarca – Amazonas, and the CAR – Amazonas through the Technical Group of Biological Diversity, facilitated by the BIODAMAZ Project and the IIAP as a whole, accompanied by the Peruvian Association for the Conservation of Nature (APECO MANU), the National Institute of Natural Resources (INRENA), Conservation International (CI – Peru), National University Toribio Rodríguez de Mendoza (UNAT), Regional Directorate of Agriculture and Production, the NGO Asociación de Ecosistemas Andinos (ECOAN), the NGO Ucumari, and many civil society actors, both institutionally and individually.
The process of preparation of the Amazon ERDB is supported by the following documents:
1. Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992
2. National Study of Biological Diversity (INRENA, 1997)
3. National Strategy for Biological Diversity (CONAM, 2001)
4. Vision of Development of the Peruvian Amazon (IIAP – CS, 1998)
5. Regional Strategy of Amazonian Biological Diversity (ERDBA, 2001) and its Plan of Action.
6. Environmental Action Plan and Regional Environmental Agenda 2003 – 2015, articulated with the Regional Environmental Policy and the National Environmental Policy, Regional Ordinance No. 006 -2004-CR / RA
7. Organic Law of Regions (Law No. 27867, amended with Law No. 27902.
8. Regional System of Environmental Management, Regional Ordinance No. 043-2004-REGIONAL GOVERNMENT AMAZONAS / CR.
Diagnosis of the biological diversity of Amazonas – Manu Park
The Amazonas region is located to the northeast of the Peruvian territory, between parallels 2º 59`15“ and 6º 59`20“ of South latitude and meridians 77º 9`45“ and 78º 42`30“ of West longitude From Peru. It covers an area of 36,540 km2, constituting 3.4% of the total area of the national territory and 4.8% of the Peruvian Amazon (BIODAMAZ, 2001 Amazon Peru). It limits towards the north with the Republic of Ecuador (what turns it into border region), to the East with the regions of Loreto and San Martín; to the South with San Martín and La Libertad and to the West with Cajamarca and the Republic of Ecuador.
Peru Amazonas was created as a department on November 21, 1832 and is recognized as a Regional Government since 2003. It includes 7 provinces and 83 districts in the Amazon jungle: Chachapoyas (21 districts), Bagua (5 districts), Bongará (12 districts) , Condorcanqui (3 districts), Luya (23 districts), Rodríguez de Mendoza (12 districts) and Utcubamba (7 districts). The capital of the region is the city of Chachapoyas.
Regional geological framework of the Amazon:
The Peruvian territory presents a complex and very interesting geology of the Peruvian jungle, the result of the process of forming a mountain range: the Andes and its marginal zones. This building is the result of two orogenies: the Herciniana (Paleozoic) and the Andean (Mesozoic – Cenozoic – Peruvian jungle).
In general, the formation of a mountain range presents four stages of the Amazon: the first corresponds to the filling of a sedimentary basin, the second comprises the deformation of the sedimentary layers previously formed and the development of reliefs, the third corresponds to the erosion of the reliefs and the deposit of post tectonic molasses and the fourth is the isostatic readjustment, a new survey due to the density difference between the cortical root of the mountain range and the mantle that surrounds it to the Peruvian jungle.
The history of the geological evolution of the Peruvian territory includes the following stages of the Amazon:
– South America was a territory made up of cratonic clumps with ancient metamorphic rocks (more than 540 MA of antiquity) that are represented by the Brazilian and Guyanese shields. In the Amazon Peru, there are remnants of these lands in the area of Huanuco and on the coast of Arequipa.
– At the western edge of these Proterozoic massifs, basins were formed in the Paleozoic (between 540 – 250 MA), which were filled, then folded and lifted by the Hercynian tectonics: The result of this orogeny is the current eastern mountain range of Amazon.
– In the Permo – Triassic time (250 – 200 MA) a “rift” was initiated in the South American territory, which continues until the Jurassic. There, rock groups were deposited in different stages (Grupo Mitu, Grupo Pucará and Fm. Sarayaquillo). During these periods, the peaceful margin probably functioned as a “Marianas” type zone with movements in the plate boundaries (Benavides, 2003).
– From the middle Cretaceous (112 MA), the subduction process was activated, generating the operation of a volcanic arc and the creation of a trench) on the western coast of South America, as the Nazca oceanic plate was introduced underneath. the South American continental plate. This confrontation occurs as a result of convergent movements of the two plates, the South American continental plate moves to the west as a result of the opening of the South Atlantic.
– Mesozoic Andean sedimentary basins were filled by clastic, carbonate and volcanic sediments and deformed by compressional forces, giving rise to the Andes Mountain Range. This chain was formed through several orogenic pulses (Mochica, Peruvian, Inca and Quechua) and nowadays it continues to rise, being eroded and contributing material for the Amazon basins of the foreland.
– The sub-Andean area (folded belt and run), and the Amazonian plain were formed from Cenozoic (65. MA) as a result of the opposite compressional confrontation, on the one hand the lifting of the Andean building and its front, and on the other the shields stable. The sub-Andean zone corresponds to a buffer zone of shortening, showing itself as a “wrinkled” belt (sub-andean belt with anticlines and synclinals overturned in layers separated by landslide faults) and its transition to the neoprene foreland basins of the Amazonian plain. These basins formed by the propagation of the prism