The guide Amazon Peru
We have not tried to produce a guide to all of the amphibians of Peru (as there are over 600 species), or even all of the amphibians on the Manu Biosphere Reserve (as there are over 160 species). What we have done is to provide an introduction to 111 species encountered either at the Manu Learning Center or some other areas around Manu, which have been visited by the authors. Some of these are very well known, such as Rhinella marina – the cane toad, whilst others have only recently been discovered, such as Oreobates amarakaeri which was named in 2012. Much of the information gathered within this guide is a collection of data and photographs from The Crees Foundation research team and various visiting guests, researchers and students.
For each species you will find the following information:
Records:This is the number of records of this species that we have in our herpetological database. More individuals may have been found incidentally, but these will not all have been recorded.SVL and weight: SVL is the snout to vent length (or the distance from the nose to the bum). The values included are the highest and lowest SVLs and weights recorded for adult and subadult individuals. Between brackets, next to these values, we indicate the number of individuals which we measured.Survey method: This section indicates the types of survey method used in which the species has been recorded. The numbers given in brackets represent the number of individuals recorded for each survey type. Read the Projects and methods section for more information.Type of habitat: We list the types of habitat where we have found each species: Bamboo (BA) – Bamboo (Guadua spp.) dominated forest.Beaches (BE) – Sandy or rocky beaches of the main rivers in the area: Alto Madre de Dios and Manu.Completely cleared and now regenerating forest (CCR) – Foothill forest that went through completely clearance and have been regenerating for several decades.Clearings and human openings (CL) – Towns, buildings, grasslands, gardens.Lowland disturbed forest (LDF) – Lowland forest with current disturbance going on, mainly logging. Lowland undisturbed forest (LUF) – Lowland forest with little or no previous disturbance, its structure is as in primary forests; main disturbance cause is low intensity selective logging. Includes areas of seasonally flooded forest (varzea).Minimally disturbed forest (MDF) – Foothill forest with little or no previous disturbance, its structure is as in primary forests; main disturbance cause is low intensity selective logging.Partially cleared and now regenerating forest (PCR) – Matrix of patches of low disturbed foothill forest with heavily disturbed forest that has been regenerating for several decades.Streams (ST) – Streamsides or riverbed. Wetland areas (WL) – Lakes, swamps, marshes.Call: For many species we have included a short clip with their call. To listen it, press the speaker icon on the top of the left page of each species profile. All recordings are from the Manu region.
Known ocurrences in Manu Region: This section lists some of the locations in and around the Manu region, where the species is known to occur. See the following key to the location abbreviations:Aguas Calientes (AC), Cocha Cashu (CC), Diamante Native Community (DI), Los Amigos (LA), Romero Lodge and Limonal Park Guard Station (RO), Manu Learning Center (MLC), Manu Wildlife Center (MWC), Pakitza Park Guard Station (PA), San Pedro (SP), Shipetiari Native Community (SH), Villa Carmen (VC), Wayqecha (WQ).References: Here we list any references from other sources, used to elaborate the species profile. The full citation can be found at the end of the book.Distribution:These are global distributions maps, representing the species potential range. Those maps are based on the IUCN Red List ones (IUCN 2015), with some amendments to reflect the newest information on their distribution.Photograph page: These are photographs taken by Crees staff members, volunteers and visitors between the years of 2011 and 2015. They have been selected to show all the key characteristics to help you identify the species in question.