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Howler Monkey – Manu Wildlife Peru.
1. | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Justification Currently on the planet, a large number of species are going extinct by leaps and bounds in the manu wildlife peru, and people are not even aware that this is happening, nor are they interested in knowing travel amazon. They do not realize that many of the things they do are seriously affecting the biodiversity that surrounds them, and little by little it is ending manu wildlife peru . Species become extinct or their populations are reduced for various reasons, but the main cause is habitat destruction due to human activities travel amazon. As different species evolve, most of them adapt to the specific habitat or environment that best meets their survival needs a. Without this particular habitat, the species cannot survive. Human activities such as pollution, drainage of wetlands, conversion of savannahs to grazing land, deforestation, urbanization, destruction of coral reefs, and the construction of roads and dams, have seriously destroyed or damaged and fragmented available habitats travel amazon. The fragmentation of habitats, the isolation and division of habitats in smaller areas, have caused the species of plants and animals that remain in these habitat “islands” to lose contact with other species manu wildife peru.
2. 4. 4 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) his own class. This reduces their genetic diversity, making them less adaptable to environmental or climate change see in this area , and leaves them highly vulnerable to extinction. Sometimes fragmented habitats become so small that they cannot sustain a sustainable population travel amazon . The present investigation was made based on the case of the extinction of the carayá monkey, which is a species of prothyrrhino primate manu wildlife peru, is the southernmost species of all the monkeys in the New World and lives in central South America travel amazon . It is a species considered to be at high risk of extinction due to its small distribution area and the small size of its population manu wildlife peru . Between November 2007 and January 2009, two successive yellow fever epidemics killed 59 howler monkeys travel amazon. Since then, entire groups have disappeared from areas where they used to be seen by neighbors and had occupied for years. The present investigation has been carried out with the purpose of knowing a little more, finding out about absolutely everything possible about this species manu wildlife peru , and understanding what is the cause of its extinction, before analyzing its main characteristics, thus, this monograph sets out to explore the world of the monkeys carayá: its appearance travel amazon , the structure of its body, its evolution, its reproduction, habits and behaviors; By studying all this, it is very likely that we will be able to understand more clearly what place this species occupies in the world travel amazon . The howler monkey, be it red, gold, black, or whatever color it is, is a species worth preserving, since, like all living things, it is a wonder of nature, and if you want to achieve this miracle will last at least a little longer, you must respect their habitat and help preserve it manu wildlife peru .
3. 5. 5 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Introduction In the world there are around 10 million different animal species, the human being belongs to one of them travel amazon . Some animals are unpleasant to us, even when there is no reason for it manu wildlife peru : a harmless snake, or a slimy snail travel amazon . On the other hand, there are other animals that we like: lemurs, seals, cats, koalas … We are attracted by their soft fur, their warm bodies, the care with which mothers care for their little ones manu wildlife peru . They are characteristics that we find in ourselves and that identify us as members of the group of mammals. Because as much as we want to feel superior to our relatives, the human species is only one of the almost 4,000 species of mammals on our planet travel amazon . What are mammals like? Mammals first have fur and hair. Some have hair all over their bodies; we have it too, but it is more evident in the head. Second, mammals are “warm blooded”. A more correct term would be to say that they are << homotherothermic >>, which means that the body temperature always stays the same, generally above the ambient temperature, instead of adjusting to 1. her. This allows mammals to remain active even if they live in a cold environment manu wildlife peru . Third, mammals feed their young with milk. This milk is produced in glands called mammals, which is where our biological group comes from with the name of mammals. During the past 2,000 years, at least 100 species of mammals have become extinct in different parts of the world travel amazon . The severity of the extinction of a species does not lie in the fact of its disappearance, but in the native effects it produces in the environment, in the secret habitat of that species, without a living being, it is completely isolated manu wildlife peru. The disappearance of a species directly affects all that surrounds it. It also affects the food chain and predation that has established itself after several million years of evolution. In a world as complex as the natural one, any alteration that happens entails many others, including pests and the submission of diseases. No species is totally isolated in its environment. The extinction process of animal species has accelerated in the last 200 years travel amazon . The survival of an increasing number of animals is endangered, for different reasons, although perhaps the most important is destruction.
2. 6. 6 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) systematizes its habitats. As it would be very verbose to list each and every one of the species that are currently threatened with extinction, we will limit ourselves to offering recent statistical data so that, despite its coldness, we can understand the magnitude of the disaster. In 1988, the set of all threatened species amounted to 4,589, of which 555 corresponded to mammals, 1,073 to birds, 186 to reptiles, 54 amphibians, 596 to fish and 2,125 to invertebrates. And in the run-up to extinction, the UINC considers that between 250 and 300 species are found manu wildlife peru. The figures are chilling and the future is not very rosy: if the current trend continues, by the year 2040, several hundred vertebrates and approximately one million insects will have become extinct. Why do animals become extinct? There are many causes that occur in the extinction of animals, but for different reasons in many cases it is not possible to give an exact reason travel amazon . For example, some species have become extinct without our knowledge of their existence. This may be the case of some endemic species in South America that have become extinct before scientists could describe them, and when this occurs it is not possible to determine if it is a species, a subspecies or an endemism that does not have essential characteristics. different from another survivor manu wildlife peru . On the other hand, we are used to classifying animals into two antagonistic groups: <<good>> and <<bad>>. The former have a nice appearance, like the giant panda and the koala, and they deserve all our consideration travel amazon . Those included in the <<bill>> category, whose appearance is unpleasant, monstrous and even repulsive, or who lack economic value, like snakes and other reptiles, do not deserve any respect and even many consider their eradication beneficial. It is not easy to convince governments of the risk of extinction that animals run until they are practically on the verge of final disappearance. The fundamental reason for keeping an animal out of all possible risk of danger is that it be <<good>>. When the animal is <<bad>>, the question does not even arise. However, it is the <<mall>> animals that are in danger of extinction, not the <<good>>. In general, the causes of extinction can be divided into two groups travel amazon : those that deprive the animal of its habitat and the products that make up its basic diet, and those that tend to slaughter it. In most cases both occur. In the last 2,000 years, many species have disappeared due to natural causes: endemic species of the islands due to volcanic eruptions, hurricanes and other catastrophes. But
7. 7 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) The incidence of these factors in the numerous extinctions recorded throughout the last 20 centuries has been minimal manu wildlife peru . In the last 300 years, the cause of the greatest changes in the animal world has been the destruction of its habitat travel amazon : the drainage of swamps and the cutting and burning of forests for the benefit of agriculture have significantly modified our planet amazon travel .
The 1. habitat destruction has played a prominent role in direct persecution by man. Although it may be an exaggeration to claim that the capture or death of different species for commercial purposes has led them to extinction, there is no doubt that these activities have wreaked havoc around the world travel amazon . As indirect causes we can point out the introduction of other non-habitat species, some domestic and others wild, that act as competitors for food resources or as direct predators in this area manu wildlife peru.
2. 8. 8 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Howler Monkey (Alouatta) The genus Alouatta belongs to the family Atelidae as do the genera Ateles, Brachyteles and Lagothryx (Groves, 2001). Monkeys of the Alouatta genus have the largest geographic distribution of all the neotropical primate genera, ranging from approximately 21 ° N to 30 ° S; as an example, they live in all the continental nations of Latin America except Chile and Uruguay (Crockett & Eisenberg, 1987; Neville et al., 1988; Villalva et al., 1995). At least nine species are currently included in this genus: A. palliata, A. pigra, A. belzebul, A. fusca, A. caraya, A. coibensis, A. guarida, A. nigérrima and A. seniculus (Rylands et al ., 2000), of which palliata and seniculus are those found in Colombia (Defler, 2010). Howlers can live in primary forests, secondary forests and in habitats highly disturbed by human activities, such as forest fragments of few hectares (Bicca Marques, 1994; Crockett, 1988). In some places, Alouatta is the only primate genus, reflecting its ability to adapt to a wide variety of ecological conditions (Eisenberg, 1979 in Crockett & Eisemberg, 1987). The main component of the diet of these primates are young leaves and immature fruits, classifying them then as folivores / frugivores. Although ripe fruits are generally preferred, howlers
3. 9. 9 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) consume more immature fruits than any other sympatric primate species. Thus, given the seasonality of plant sources, their diet is highly limited and they face great energy restrictions (Braza et al., 1983; Estrada & Coastes Estrada, 1984; Crockett & Eisenberg, 1987). The area of action of a troop can vary annually depending on the availability manu wildlife peru and distribution of food sources as well as the presence of competitors for those resources in travel amazon . However, the energy constraints they face may make long daily trips impossible for a howler (Crockett & Eisenberg, 1987). Thus, its success in surviving in forest fragments and / or in degraded areas has been related to the ability to include large amounts of leaves in its diet in relatively small areas of action (Braza et al., 1983; Crockett, 1988; Bicca Marques, 2003; Defler, 2010). In addition to that, howlers do not need to drink water directly, so they are not restricted to their proximity; instead they satisfy the need by drinking water that accumulates in the vegetation (Crockett, 1998). Howlers have sexual dimorphism since adult males are larger than adult females (5.0 to 9.0 kg and 3.89 to 7.0 kg respectively) (Rowe, 1996; Defler, 2010). it is evident in the size of the hyoid bone (greater in males than in females), a fundamental structure that acts as a resonator of its characteristic vocalization travel amazon , long distance howling (Crockett & Eisenberg, 1987; Rowe, 1996; Bicca Marques et al. , 2006), by which the name is attributed to the genre. These vocalizations, considered one of the most powerful in nature (Defler, 2010), allow long-distance communication between troops, which has been suggested as a possible adaptive advantage that allows these primates to cope with unfavorable situations related to fragmentation. habitat and overpopulation (Noya et al., 2011).
4. 10. 10 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) Are Neotropical primates, whose geographical distribution extends from Mexico to southern Brazil and northern Argentina [Crockett 1986]. Geographical Distribution of the different species of the Alouatta genus manu wildlife peru .
1. 11. 11 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Howler monkeys possess the widest geographic range of all Platyrrhini primates, occupying a wide diversity of environments [Eisenberg 1979; Wolfheim 1983]. They can be found in areas above 2,300 masl, as well as in evergreen rain forests travel amazon or deciduous or semi-deciduous dry forests [Glander 1978; Eisenberg 1979; Milton 1980; Wolfheim 1983]. Currently nine or ten species are recognized within this genus [Groves 2001; Cortés-Ortiz 2003, Wilson & Reeder 2005]. The phylogenetic relationships established between the species of the genus Alouatta, using mitochondrial DNA sequences, allow us to infer a diversification of the howlers initiated by a vicarious process due to the emergence of the Andes [Cortés-Ortiz et al. 2003]. This process led to the differentiation of the howlers into two large groups, the one comprising the howler monkeys of Central America (Trans-Andean) and the one of the howler monkeys of South America (Cis-Andean), both monophyletic (Cortés- Ortiz et al. 2003). The estimated divergence time between these two groups is 6.6-6.8 Ma [Cortés-Ortiz et al. 2003]. For howler species currently distributed in South America travel amazon , the formation of the Amazon river, which occurred in the late Miocene [Lundberg et al. 1998] could have acted as a barrier, favoring the speciation mechanism, while the causes that originated the Central American species remain unclear [Cortés-Ortiz et al. 2003].
2. 12. 12 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) -Philogenetic relationships between species of the genus Alouatta (reproduced from Cortés- Ortiz et al., 2003) manu wildlife peru .
3. 13. 13 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Anatomy and Physiology travel amazon .
4. 14. 14 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Howler monkeys have short, wide-apart snouts, round noses in this area travel amazon . Their noses are very enthusiastic, and the howler monkey can smell their food out 2 km away. Their noses are generally rounded snout-type and the nose has many sensory hairs that grow from the inside. Its size varies from 56 to 92 cm, not including the tail, which can be equal in length, in fact, in some cases the tail has been found to be almost 5 times the length of the body. This is a primary feature. Like many New World monkeys, they have prehensile tails amazon wildlife peru . They can grab objects with it, hence they often encounter their prehensile tails to pick fruit from trees. Unlike other monkeys in the New World, male and female howler monkeys have trichromatic color vision. This has evolved independently of other monkeys in the New World, due to gene duplication travel amazon . They have a life of 15 to 20 years. Howler species are dimorphic and can also be dichromatic. Males are, on average, 1.5 to 2.0 kg heavier than females. Alouatta’s hyoid is ossified, one of the few cases of postcranial pneumatity outside Saurischia.
5. 15. 15 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Howler monkeys generally move quadrupeds high up on branches, usually holding a branch with a minimum of two hands or one hand and the tail at all times travel amazon . Their strong prehensile tails are capable of supporting all their body weight. Fully grown adult howler monkeys often do not rely on the tail for full body support manu wildlife peru , while juvenile howlers more frequently. Floor: Walking on the twigs. The howler uses all four limbs to support and slowly advance, tail slightly raised. Small individuals also move at the bottom of the branches, parallel to the same body. Execute: Sometimes it includes small free jumps. Gain momentum: The animal quickly flexing hindquarters to gain momentum and jump, sometimes staring at potential arrival points. Free jump. The animal jumps with its limbs and tail free. Jump semi-free. It is performed with the forelimbs, or all the limbs free and spiral in a single branch. They have the ability to see in all colors, just like humans do. They are large in size and move slowly, lacking the speed and agility of most monkeys.
6. 16. 16 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Behavior in this area manu wildlife peru .
1. 17. 17 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Most species of howler monkeys live in groups of six to 15 animals, with one to three adult males and several females travel amazon . Although there are exceptions, in which they live in groups of 15 to 20 individuals with more than three adult males. Unlike most New World monkeys, in which one sex remains in birth groups, young men and women migrate from their birth groups, such that howler monkeys could spend most of their adult lives in association with unrelated monkeys. Physical fighting between group members is infrequent and generally of short duration in this area manu wildlife peru . However, injuries can be serious. Both males and females rarely fight each other, but physical aggression is even rarer between the sexes. The size of the group varies by species and location, with a male approximate the female to male ratio of four females. Play. During the social game, the animals simulate fights, hitting their hands on the head and the body of another individual, they nibble, accompanied by grunts. Taste. The animal passes its hand through the skin of another who is close to it, examining it. The sweep can occur below the beard and lectin, the armpits, the pubis or in other parts of the body, at random. Sometimes, after examining the layer on the other, the remover licks the Catada region or removes the particles it brings to the mouth. Shelters / packages: this type of formation can be circular or deformed, like the branch they occupy. The animal is placed leaning on another individual, forming rest groups (it can gather the entire band). Adults stand at the edges, while young occupy the center of the group, in contact with the adult matrix. It is a formation that usually occurs at low temperatures or rain manu wildlife peru .
2. 18. 18 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) As its name suggests, vocal communication is an important part of your social behavior travel amazon . Each has a basihyal or expanded hyoid bone that helps them take on their strong vocalizations. Males in the group generally call sunrise and sunset, as well as times interspersed throughout the day. The lead voices consist of deep, loud “howls”, gutturals or grunts. Howler monkeys are widely considered to be the strongest animal on earth. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, their vocalizations are clearly heard for 3 miles travel amazon . The howling function is believed to refer to the separation between groups and the protection of the territory, as well as possibly surveillance of the couple leaving in manu wildlife peru . The animal’s mouth is normally closed or semi-open and he may be sitting or locomotion. Babies’ crying is sharp and prolonged (iiiih !!!!), while young and female crying is more severe (ooh-ooh !!!). Vocalize. The sounds are small and medium range, emitted during feeding, locomotion, and alertness, for all ranges of animals by sitting, lying down, lounging on the bridge in locomotion. They will distinguish- four continuous rhythmic noises (O, O, O, O, O, uh, uh, uh, uh, Cluc Cluc Cluc! Rus-ru-ru-ru) … During the social game between infants, he growls may issue, some spaced individuals emit vocalizations during the break. Roar. It can be produced by adult males and females with the typical acoustic characteristics of each sexual category. Individuals look towards the animal that directed the roar, bringing its head slightly forward while emitting loud roars. The mouth is open, with the upper lips forming a rhombus. Roaring can also emerge as a form of defensive behavior manu wildlife peru .
1. 19 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) These large, slow-moving monkeys are the only New World monkey monkeys. They feed mainly on the canopy leaves, along with fruits, buds, flowers, and nuts in manu wildlife peru . They have to be careful not to eat too many leaves of some species in one sitting, as some contain toxins that can poison them. Howler monkeys are also known to occasionally attack bird nests and chicken coops and consume eggs. Eat sitting: sitting, the animal takes the food to the mouth to select what seems most attractive (leaves, fruits, stems and barks) this area manu wildlife peru . You can pluck the leaves from the tree, holding it with one hand or both together, holding it close to the mouth when chewing. Baby. He normally drinks sitting or hanging from his tail, puts his hand in the hollow of the tree, waters it and takes it with his mouth several times in this jungle travel amazon . Hanging by the tail, you can put your head directly into the hole to drink water. It also eats wet leaves, enjoying the water absorbed in them. Penetrating branches. The howler monkey bites twigs, or directly on the tree, they eat shells, stems, apical and axillary buds. The uses for this type of sitting postures, hanging by the tail, and quadruped. Defecate. Sitting, body at an angle of approximately 45 degrees, tail coiled on parallel branch or slightly raised laterally with end wrapped in same supporting branch, members supported on this branch. The animal can walk in the midst of defecation. They urinate. It usually occurs during or after defecation, the same body posture that is used manu wildlife peru .
2. 20. 20 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Look. The anima sitting or lying down, looking around, turning, raising or lowering the head to the place to be centered travel amazon . Sometimes, to protect the ground, he supports the ventral region of the body on a branch, with his head down. They escape. Faced with a potential danger, the animal runs away. Stir branches. Looking at the opponent or predator, the animal is sure to end the branch with both hands, shaking it. Sometimes breaking some branches, dropping to the ground or threatening him. It occupies a quadruped position during the execution of this behavior. They excrete in a group. In the presence of strangers in their field of use, apes stand next to each other, defecate and urinate at the same time. Show teeth. Howlers, sometimes in piloerection, partially open their mouths, facing the opponent. Fight. The opponents, in the same branch, facing each other. Sometimes they emit vocalizations. They adopt a quadruped posture, shaking the branches, being able to hit each other, closing the hands on the head or the body of the other and clinging, can bite. The tail remains coiled on the branch. To bite. Lunge at the opponent, biting him quickly travel amazon . They do not have a specific mating season, as long as they have a nesting place and plenty of food they will take part in it. Males will generally initiate the mating process. They have a waiting period of approximately 180 days from conception to birth amazon travel .
3. 21. 21 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Normally only one young is born at a time and they are well cared for by their mothers. They also grow rapidly, and when they are about one year old, they should leave the group. During the first year of life, mothers strive to ensure that all their needs are met this monkey in manu wildlife peru . They also work to teach them the right skills for when they are on their own. The average life of the howler monkey in the wild is 10 years, in captivity they can live up to 20 years. They inspect the genitals. The male plays with his hands and licks her genitals and female pubic area, he and she in a quadruped position. They sniff the genitals. In a quadruped position, both the male and the female sniff each other’s genitals quickly. Copulation. The female is turned upside down with the ventral or four limbs resting on the branch. The male takes charge of the riding position, behind, he puts his belly resting on the back of the female, grabs hind legs resting on the branch. The male performs movements with the pelvic region. The pair remains in contact for some time after copulation. Breastfeeding When they sit, the mother hugs the baby or simply puts her arms around him. The little baby clings to it, belly to belly, the baby can sit while suckling. Load on the back. When carried in the center of the mother’s back, the child can occupy a vertical or lateral position and put his tail around his body. When loaded at the base of the erect tail remains, they wind the tail into the maternal tail. Babies sometimes sit on the mother’s tail while resting travel amazon .
22. 22 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Press the belly. The mother carries the baby who is holding on to her belly, while the baby is holding firmly with her hands and feet in her fur. The baby tries to curl its tail on the side of the mother’s body while she is moving in this forest travel amazon . Play with adults. The fun part of the hatchlings with the adults giving light bites, pulling the beard and hitting the mother or father or coming to put their hand in the parents mouth when they yawn. Parents reciprocate with bites, grunts, and light jerks. Build a bridge. The mother’s body stretches out its hands grasping the branches of a tree and the tail and legs of the other powers: the baby goes from one tree to another on its back. Exit. The mother turns to the sides of the chest and pushes the baby attached to her back with her hands, sometimes biting and vocalizing. Seated. Supported on a branch, the animal has its body reclined forward, its limbs close to the thorax (on low temperature days) and stretched laterally (on hot days). The tail remains wrapped around the branch or animal body. Side laying. The animal is lying on the branch, flexing the hind limbs. The forelimbs may be close to the body or placed on the hind limbs. The tail is wrapped around the limb, they can also be under the head. Lying on the back: Animal supports the dorsal branch and extends on all 4 limbs; You can leave them loose, curly or tail free. Lying down BRUCO: The animal to the ventral region leans on the branch, the arms and legs are loose vertically, next to the body of the branch or stretched horizontally, it puts its hands holding on to a branch and close to the curled tail on this branch or other neighbor. Hanging by the tail … The tail curls on a branch, the hind limbs also attached to the branch, the animal remains motionless for a few moments. The animal can loosen all four limbs this monkey leaving manu wildlife peru .
2. 23. 23 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Neutral posture. The animal stops running a gas pipeline, remaining motionless. He bathes while sitting, the animal looks at himself, rubs himself and caresses himself. Cleaning the anus. After defecating, the howler sits with his feet and hands flat on the branch, tail lateralized, and rubs his anus on the branch, coming and going. Nose. At rest, the animal runs its hand through its nose several times, sometimes after sneezing. Play hanging vertically. Attached to the branch by the tail, the animal shakes the body or arms. Sometimes paddle foliage, breaking branches. Yawning. In the neutral posture, the animal opens its mouth, its head slightly tilted back, sometimes with its tongue sticking out. Exhalation. The head advances rapidly, the body trembles, occurring in a manner similar to that of the sound of human sneezing. Scratching. Their heads, arms and back sometimes itch, they rub themselves with the branches or scratch gently with their hand. Stretching. The animal stretches its entire body and limbs simultaneously or one at a time, raising its head and stretching its back. Agitation. The bristles of the animal’s skin shake them and move the chest laterally, for the elimination of water. (After the rain) travel amazon.
3. 24. 24 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Taxonomy and evolution .
4. 25. 25 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) In 1995, Alouatta macconnelli and Alouatta straminea were erected from 2 subspecies of A.seniculus. In 2000 Rylands et al. They accepted nine species: A. seniculus, A. sara, A. nigerrima, A. belzebul, A. guariba, A. palliata, A. coibensis, A. caraya and A. pigra, while Groves in 2001 classified the genus into 10 species including in addition to those prior to A. macconnelli. Genetic studies allow us to calculate that the initial separation of Alouatta in South America could have happened between 4.8 and 5.1 million years. Evidence indicates that Central American species separated between 6.6 and 6.8 million years ago. In fact, the most basal species in the genus appears to be Alouatta palliata. According to the same analyzes, it seems that the earliest division between the current southern river species occurred between Alouatta Guariba and Alouatta Belzebul, around 4 million years ago. The extinct species Alouatta mauroi apparently was part of this speciation and the most related species appears to be A. guariba.
5. 26. 26 | Howler Monkey (Alouatta) Habitat It inhabits the jungle areas, especially in the gallery forests of the North of South America. The joint howl of large groups of araguatos resembles the whistle of the wind although much more powerful and sustained travel amazon.