DETAILED ITINERARY - MANU PARK LODGE
Manu Wildlife Center 8 days / 7 nights:
Manu Wild Center Day 1:
Cusco – Ninamarka / Manu Lodge .
We leave Cusco early in the morning to start our adventure! First, we are taken by private transport to a place called Ninamarca to observe pre-Incan “chullpas” (tombs) of the Lupaca culture. Then, we continue to Paucartambo, a colonial town with narrow streets and a beautiful church, where people still keep their old customs. Then, we ascend to the viewpoint Tres Cruces (3,900 masl) to beautiful view of the amazon basin if the weather permits. From there, we start descending to Manu National Park, home of species such as the cock of the rock (the Peruvian national bird), hummingbirds, strikingly-coloured quetzals, trogons, spotted flycatchers, and woolly monkies. In terms of flora, we can view a variety of orchids, mosses, ferns, etc. Finally, We reach our Manu Cloud Forest Lodge to have a relaxing evening by the lodge’s veranda. The sound of the Union Creek will put us into a pleasant sleep.
Manu Wild Center Day 2:
Manu Nature Lodge / Port Atalaya / Dorado Lodge ( optional Patiacolla Lodge ) Manu National Park .
The lush and misty cloud forest is perhaps the most fragile and threatened type of rainforest. This forest which starts from 11,000 feet, and continue down to about 5,000 feet of elevation, cover the eastern slopes of the Andes, before yielding to the vast lowland forest of the Amazon. This is a kingdom of moss, lichens, ferns, and orchids.
Early excursion to a nearby platform and blind strategically located to see a “lek” where the brightly red-colored Cocks-of-the Rock perform a daily display for the females. Afterwards we return to our lodge for a hearty breakfast.
After breakfast, we will board our private vehicle for an3 hour to the main port of the Manu – Atalaya National Park (500 masl). There, we will board a motorized boat to continue for about 4 hours navigating the Madre de Dios River. Along the river, we have a great opportunity to observe several species such as herons, vultures, kingfishers, turtles, egrets and some of the 13 species of monkeys that live in Manu! We will have lunch in Hot Spring Manu Park where you will have the opportunity to take a refreshing bath Afterwards we will take our boat outboard later We reach our next Lodge Pantiacolla or Dorado Lodge Pantiacolla lodge accommodation in our private room in the afternoon we will have the opportunity to visit the primary forest return to our lodge Showers and toilets available.
After dinner we have a night walk in the Amazon Manu Tour
Dorado lodge accommodation in our private rooms after dinner we will do night walk.
Manu Wildlife Center Day 3:
Dorado Lodge / Casa Matsiguenga to Manu Reserve Center.
Today we will get up very early to go visit to the parrot clay lick and then we return to our lodge to have breakfast We will go back to take our Outboard boat to travel by trip through to the Madre de Dios River to change for a navigation on the Manu River offering us other incredible views of a great variety of species that live in and around it, such as groups of turtles, white alligators, capybaras, jaguars Panthera onca) resting on a trunk and observing its territory. Arriving in the afternoon to our Lodge Machiguenga.
Later our tour guide takes us to Otorongo Oxbow Lake where an observation tower is placed that allows us to see the giant otters that live there. During that time, the Guide teaches us functions and secrets of the jungle. After that, we return night Lodge Machiguenga.
Showers and toilets available night walk in the Manu National Park.
Manu Wildlife Center Day 4:
Casa Matsiguenga / Cocha Salvador Manu Biosphere .
Today we will visit another lake called Salvador on our silent rowing boat that allows us to observe a family of playful giant river otters, These, the world’s largest freshwater carnivores, remain common only in Manu .Each animal consumes between 4 and 5 kilos of fish daily and often they can be seen eating large fish on logs at the lakeside. Observing as well as many rare bird species including a prehistoric bird called Shansho, Heron, Cormorants, Water Duck, Horned Screamer, Turtles, Taricaya, Black Alligators.
The rest of the day will be spent walking the trails in the area in search of some of the 13 species of Monkey as Black Spider Mokey , Red Howler Monkey Night Monkey ,Dusky Titi Monkey ,Saddleback Tamarin ,Brown Capuchin Monkey and some mammals found here , Giant Anteater ,South American Coati ,Two Toed Sloth ,Deer a group of peccaries , found in the forest here our guide will explain some of the basics of rainforest ecosystems and point out some of the medicinal hight plants of the area used by local, indigenous groups.
You can be sure that the animals here in the wild Manu Amazon have never suffered from hunting by people! In the afternoon, we return to our Lodge in Otorongo. . Showers and toilets available in Manu Nationa Reserve Center .
Manu Wildlife Center Day 5:
Casa Matsiguenga / Cocha Otorongo /Manu Biosphere .
Today the call of the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) will wake us up for take our breakfast. After that, we ll start to explore the primary forest very slowly where-where we will have the opportunity to see and know many such as, Monkeys, Mammals, Insect, Giant Trees, Ayahuasca Plants, Chestnut Trees, Seeds, Edible and Inedible Fruits Native and healing plants that native people use to heal themselves when they are sick. A visit to the lake of Cocha Otorongo is planned, where observation piers and a 20-meter observation tower in the rainforest canopy overlooking the lake are available for observing wildlife. We will also be on the lookout for a large family of Giant Otters that inhabit this lake Our guide will teach you about the flora and fauna of the Manu reserve . After that, we return night Lodge Machiguenga .
Showers and toilets available night walk in the Manu National Park
Manu Wildlife Center Day 6:
Casa Matsiguenga / Dorado Lodge –
Today again call of the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) will wake us up. Unfortunately, we need to start our return on the Manu River, and one will be able to understand why Manu is so famous for its wildlife. At the edges of the river you will see groups of turtles, white alligators (Caiman cocodrylus), capybaras (Hydrochaeris) and perhaps a Jaguar (Panthera Onca) resting on a trunk and observing its territory .
In the afternoon we will arrive at the lodge where we will settle in our respective rooms afterwards we will have a walk around our Lodge. after dinner, we will have a night activity
Past the Nigth in Lodge with Showers and toilets available.
Manu Wildlife Center Day 7:
Dorado Lodge / Amazon Lodge Manu –
After breakfast we continue navigating upriver the Alto Madre de Dios River, where you can observe plant and pbirds on the beaches animals like capybara, turtles or caimans on the shore. If time allows we can make a stop at Aguas Calientes (hot waters) to have a swim then we will arrive at Lodge Soga de Oro .( optional zipline ) in the afternoon we can visit Machuwasi lake, to see some more animals after that return. where we spend the night in our Lodge (double and triple rooms).
We also go for a night walk after dinner.
Manu Willdife Center Day 8:
Manu Lodge / Atalaya Port to Cusco .
We woke up very early today After breakfast on the last day of the trip, then we will pack things to take the boat and start navigating through the Madre de Dios high river towards.
the Atalaya port. Where Our private vehicle awaits us back to the City of Cusco Approximately we will arrive to the city of Cusco from 7:00 pm to 8:00 pm. – Peru
You need to be vaccinated against Yellow Fever and bring some anti-malaria tablets with you .
End of the services of Manu Park Lodge - Manu Wildlife Center 8 days / 7 nights
Included in the Manu Wildlife Center 8 day tour:
- A professional naturalist tour guide;
- Motorboat transportation;
- Private vehicle land transportation;
- Entrance to the Reserved Zone of the Manu National Park;
- A professional cook,
- Meals: 7 breakfasts, 8 lunches, 7 dinners and drinking water (Please note: vegetarian option available upon request for no extra cost);
- Accommodation: 7 nights in our lodges;
- First aid kit, including a poison extractor, mosquito bite treatment, and an antidote for snake bites;
- Radio communications;
- Rubber boots.
Not included in the Manu Wildlife Center 8 day tour:
- Flight and airport departure taxes;
- Travel insurance;
- Breakfast on the first day and dinner on the last day;
- Tips to local staff.
What to take with you on the Manu Wildlife Center 8 day tour:
- Mosquito repellent (DEET 35 recommended as a MINIMUM),
- Original passport,
- Small backpack,
- Long sleeved cotton shirts (preferably green coloured),
- Long cotton trousers,
- Cotton long socks (to be put into your trousers),
- Comfortable walking shoes,
- Sandals or light shoes,
- Rain gear (e.g. rain poncho),
- Sweater (for the beginning of the tour in Andes and the cloud forest only),
- Binoculars (also available for rent),
- Camera and charger,
- Plastic bags to be used for clothes and a camera,
- A hat as a protection against the sun or rain,
- Small towel,
- Toilet paper,
- Sun cream,
- Flashlight (with spare bulb and batteries),
- Water bottle (1 litre as a minimum),
- Pocket money (Soles) to buy some beverages and souvenirs, as well as to tip
End of the services of Manu Park Lodge - Manu Wildlife Center 8 days / 7 nights
OUR LODGE FOR Manu Wildlife Center 8 days / 7 nightsK
MANU WILDLIFE CENTER : Our tour begins in Lima, where the nutrient-rich tributaries of the Humboldt Current cold provide food for seabird colonies that include boobies, cormorants and penguins. After a short flight to Cusco, we traveled through high mountain natural pastures and fields cultivated for centuries in search of endemics such as the bearded mountaineer and the creamy hawthorn tail. Once we reach the ridge of the Acjanaco pass on the land line, the landscape falls down into an increasingly higher and more humid forest. Our first stop is at the Biological Station of Wayqechua, where we explore the misty dolphin forests that buzz with the high altitude hummingbirds and tánganos. Then, we continue to Cock-of-the-Rock Lodge, where lush cloud forests harbor exuberant Andean Cock-of-the-Rock leks, flocks of technicolor tans like Parra’s, crowned with saffron, with Beryl sequins and bright as Andean Solitaire and Chestnut-breasted Wren. A little further down at the Villa Carmen Biological Station, we explore the spiny bamboo Guadua and the rainforest at the foothills for the bright Jacamar with bluish brow, the adorable Tody-Flycatcher with black back and the ManúAntbird. Finally, we arrive at the impressive Amazon jungle: a habitat where diversity, complexity and beauty are found. Here, we spent four full days soaking up the spectacle of parrot and tears lamas attended by hundreds of parrots, visiting quiet lakes of oxen inhabited by the prehistoric Hoatzins and the elegant herons of Agami, observing toucans and cotingas of bright colors on platforms of canopy and looking for large mammals. Like the giant otter and the South American tapir. All in all, this tour covers one of the best birding roads in the world.
MANU WILDLIFE CENTER . The biodiversity of the Amazon is under enormous threat from habitat destruction and fragmentation, infrastructure development, unsustainable natural resource use, and, increasingly, climate change. Reducing rates of deforestation and biodiversity loss in the Amazon requires a targeted threats-based conservation approach that works from the local-to-global level. Effective conservation also requires adaptive management in order for programs to effectively respond to changing realities on the ground, while achieving measurable results. WWF, together with a powerful team of partners, proposes to work in the Purús-Manu Conservation Corridor, a conservation priority area for WWF comprising indigenous territories, protected areas and communal lands to help USAID’s Initiative for the Conservation of the Andean Amazon achieve its goal of maintaining the Andean Amazon Biome through the sustainable management of selected landscapes .
MANU WILDLIFE CENTER .
Manu Lodge, Amazon Lodges, Amazonia Lodge, Manu Nature ,Manu Lodges ,Amazonia Lodge ,Manu Nature ,Manu peru ,Manu Wildlife Center ,Paradise Lodge, Eco manu Lodge ,Amazon Trail ,Amazon Trails, Manu Peru ,Manu Park Volunteer ,Amazon Lodge, Tambo Blanquillo ,Manu Rainforest ,Manu Wildlife Center , Manu Expeditions , Manu Explorerer, Bonanaza Tours Peru, Casa Matsigenka , Pankotsi Lodge , Manu Pusharo Lodge , Inkanatura Lodge . Cocha Cashu Biological Station ,Cocha Salvador ,Cocha Otorongo , Manu Birding Lodge , Manu Rainforest Lodge ,Manu Rainforest expeditions ,Manu Adventure ,amazon Peru Lodge , Amazonia Wildlife Center Peru ,Cocha Salvador Manu ,Cocha Otorongo Manu ,Manu Center Peru , Manu Nature Wildlife ,Manu National Park ,Manu nature Rainforest ,Manu Nature Biosphere ,Manu reserve Center ,Manu Paradise Wild ,Amazon Lodge Peru ,Amazonia Rainforest Peru ,Manu Peru Jungle ,Amazon Lodge Explorer ,Eco Manu Center , Wildlife Center Rainforest Lodge, Manu Paradise Lodge Peru , Manu Expedition Nature ,Inkanatura Travel Peru, Rainforest Peru ,Amazon Trail Manu ,Manu Lodge Center ,Amazonia Manu Trips ,Manu Wild Center Amazon.
End of the services of Manu Park Lodge - Manu Wildlife Center 8 days / 7 nights
TOUR MAP: Manu Wildlife Center 8 days / 7 nights
Our tour begins in Lima, where nutrient-rich upwellings from the cold Humboldt Current offernourishment for teeming seabird colonies that include boobies, cormorants,and penguins. After a short flight to Cusco, we travel across natural high mountain grasslands and fields farmed for centuries in search of endemics likeBearded Mountaineer and Creamy-crested Spinetail. Once we reach the crest of the Acjanaco Pass abovethetreeline, the landscape tumbles downward into progressively taller and wetter forest. Our first stop is Wayqechua Biological Station, where we explore misty elfin forests buzzingwith high elevation tanagers and hummingbirds. Then, we continue to Cock-of-the-Rock Lodge,where lush cloud forests harbor exuberant leks of the Andean Cock-of-the-Rock, mixed flocks of technicolor tanagers likeParadise, Saffron-crowned,and Beryl-spangled, and brilliantsongsters such as Andean Solitaire and Chestnut-breasted Wren. A bitfurther down still at Villa Carmen Biological Station, we explore spiny Guadua bamboo and foothill rainforest for the shimmeryBluish-fronted Jacamar, adorable Black-backed Tody-Flycatcher,and skulking ManúAntbird. Finally, we reach the awe-inspiring Amazonian Rainforest: a habitat layered withdiversity, complexity,and sheer beauty. Here, we spend four full days soaking up the spectacle of parrot clay licks attended by hundreds of parrots, visiting quiet oxbow lakes inhabited by prehistoric Hoatzins and elegant Agami Herons, watching for brightly-coloredtoucans and cotingas from canopy platforms, and seeking out large mammals likeGiant Otter and South American Tapir. All in all, this tour covers one of the greatest birding roads in the world.
conservation of biological diversity and heritage Historical-cultural Park of the Manu National Park in 2033, achieved through the development of research, education environment, tourism, participatory management and the promotion of sustainable activities in the Buffer Zone, consolidating its role as a Natural Heritage Site of the Humanity and Wildlife Center Biosphere Reserve.
End of the services of Manu Park Lodge - Manu Wildlife Center 8 days / 7 nights
FREE INFORMATION TURISM - MANU PARK LODGE
Amazon Peru Wildlife : The Manu Biosphere Reserve in southeastern Peru is one of the richest regio ns in the world, with high habitar variabilitv and enormous diversity of living organisms. Located in. a remote area of the eastern Andean cordillera, this neotropical region has been the focus of considerable research on the flora and fauna in recent years. John Terborgh ofDuke University and his colleagues have used their research station at Cocha Cashu to study tropical ecology and animal behavior for more than two decades. Those studies, published in a variety of outlets and widely disserninated, have contributed enormously to our understanding of tropical ecosystems. However, Cocha Cashu’s location, deep wirhin the core of the National Park, argued against the type of intense collecting activity necessary to document the tremendous biodiversity of the region. In 1987, Terry Erwin of the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural Historv, initiated the Biological Diversity of Latin America (BIOLA T) program, to develop strategies for measuring and understanding biodiversity in the tropics. One of the first si tes chosen for intensive inventory work was the Manu Biosphere Reserve, and a new field station was developed at Pakitza, a guard station o~ the boundary of the National Park. This allowed development of the intensive sampling and monitoring programs necessary to document the region’s biodiversity.Together with local Peruvian institutions and agencies, including the Dirección General de Forestal y Fauna del Ministerio de Agricultura (DGFF), the Asociación Peruana para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (APECO), and the Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos among many others, the BIOLA T Program developed two parallel components for approaching important biodiversity issues: research and education. Research was oriented to the inventory, mapping, and taxonomy of flora and fauna, including the establishment of Iha permanent vegetation plots. Workshops, short courses, seminars, and lectures given by national and foreign scientists were the educational mechanisms, oriented towards “how to do it”.Studies were designed to present preliminary results at the end of the first five years. Thus, initial stages of res e ar ch were originall y planned to inventory various important components of the flora and fauna. Manuscripts documenting preliminarv results on various groups were published in a series of ovér one hundred scientific contributions (see Áppendix 1). To supplement and summarize much of this information, we invited all participants in the program to con tribute to the present volume. Studies of biodíversity in Manu focused on species-level inventory, and a sampling scheme was developed in conjunction with the Smithsonian lnstitution/ Man and the Biosphere SI/MAB program. The focal point for many groups of plants and invertebrates was a series of I-ha plots established to encompass the variety of habítats available at the site. For many other groups, including vertebrares, a variety of sampling schemes were used to develop checklists and to begin to document diversity. One important outgrowth of thís effort was a majar effort to develop standardized sampling schemes for various groups of organisms. Subsequendy, Mercedes Foster of the Natíonal Biological Service, established a publication series that will produce handbooks documenting these techniques (Heyer, et al., 1994).
THE NATURAL SETTING : The natural history of the Manu regíon is known primarilv from local investigations developed mainly at Cocha Cashu and Pakirza. Recent satellite imagery also is providing insights for studies of ri ver and forest dynamics. An initial description of the natural historv of the Pakitza site, particularlv from an entomologícal perpectíve, was provided by BIOLA T Conrribution # 13 (Erwin, 1991).
Location, The Manu National Park was created by the Peruvian govemment in 1973 for the purpose of preserving its flora and fauna. In 1977, this area became the Manu Bíosphere Reserve which includes the Manu National Park, the Manu Reserve Zone and the buffer zone of surroundíng territories. It covers an area of approxímately 1,532,806 ha, located in the draínage of the Alto Madre de Dios river with coordinares ranging from 71 º10′-72º25’W and 11º16′-13º11’S, along the eastem andean cordillera, with an elevational range of 300-4000 meters above sea level. It is shared by rhe departrnents of Cusco and Madre de Dios, in southeastem Peru. The Manu river, a tributary .. of the Madre de Dios river, is rhe Reserve’s maín avenue, ranging in altirude from 310 m at Boca Man u to 400 m at T ayacome. The BIOLAT station at Pakitza is at 356 m, wíth tertiary soils maínly ídentified as clayish with sorne lime and sandy areas. Several tenaces of various width, low altítude, and flat surfaces can be observed when one travels up ríver. The history of forests in the Manu basin can be reconstructed from the river profiles, as sequentia] forest growth is evident at various locatíons. Major topographic features of this ecosystem include beaches along the river, cochas or lakes of fluvial origins,
Three main tributaries frame the BIOLA T sudy area in the Manu basin, Pachij a, Fortaleza, and Pinquén. Mostly known as quebradas, these tributaries have been the focus of faunal, floral, and chemical analyses. Currently, the species list of Manu river fauna is one of the most complete for southeastern Peru.
A second area of BIOLAT studies includes the transect from Cusco to Atalaya. Encompassing elevations between 4000 and 500 rn, it stretches from paramo and cloud forest to premontane tropical humid forest. Collections made along this transect help to define distributional limits for a variety of groups with detailed inforrnation from the lowland Pakitza site, There are two ways of reaching Pakitza from Lima, Peru’s capital citv. Flying from Lima to Puerto Maldonado is rhe most common and time-efficient route, and the one favored by most BIOLAT scientists. lt involves a one-and-a-half hour füght and two days of river-travel by small boat along the lower Madre de Dios and Manu rivers. The other travel alternative is a füght from Lima to Cusco, overland from Cusco to Atalaya on a dirt road so narrow as to be limited to alterna te one-way traffic on alternate days, anda two-dav boat trip along the alto Madre de Dios and Manu rivers, Initiallv, BIOLA T participants used the second option extensively, involving considerable time and high costs, but necessary for logistical preparations and transportation of field supplies and equiprnent. As a result, the Cusca-Atalaya option became one of the most important ateas for sampling biodiversity at a variety of altitudinal zones and microhabitats.
THE CULTURAL SETTING : The region has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Archaeological remains such as ceramics suggest that the region was occupied at least from the begining of the current era. These early human inhabitants were mainly located along the rivers, upper terraces, and cochas, or lakes resulting from the natural enclosure of a river meander. A preliminary ceramic analysis shows a variety of patterned physical attributes suggesting a marked range of domestic use, and therefore, sorne economic activities. Site location and ceramic variation through time indicare the seasonally continuous use of the region by various ethnic populations.
Early written sources indica te that the Manu region was the setting of at least eight ethnic groups distributed between the lower and upper sections of the Manu river (Alvarez, 1899). The region was referred to as one of the most dangerous due to the inhabitants’ behavior. Currently, three ethnic groups showing strong historical continuity can be identified: Machiguengas, Piros, and Yaminahuas. Their material cultures indicare that they survived the externa] inter-ethnic confüct as well as considerable environmental pressure. Ethnohistorical and ethnographic records, and currerit archaeological research in Manu show that these inhabitants occupied the region since prehistoric times, and the density and distributíon of their sporadic settlements are expressions of their nomadic economy Current local inhabitants referred to them as conflicting groups dueto territoriality and differential access to subsistence resources. Thus, hunters and fishermen toda y have to constantly define their territories dueto the changing fluctuations of the ver and riverine courses, during and after each rain y season. Preference of specific sources for fishing and hunting instruments, and the heterogeneity of foocl preparation and comsurnption, are distinctive índicators of ethnic differentiation ( Chiriff, 197 5; Parker et al., 1983). Each of these groups has developed particular adaptive responses and cultural patterns by confronting the diversity of environmental limitations and accessibility to resources (Bunker, 1980). Most importantly, populations like these have provided first-hand methodological tools in the forrnulation :md understanding of socio-econornic processes of archeological societies in the Amazonian ecosystem. It is unfortunate however, that wood and rubber exploitation, and rnodern
fluvial traffic have contributed to the depopulation of streamside arcas rnainly along the Manu and Madre de Dios rivers. Furtherrnore, local developrnent policies have dictated that native populations rnove terra dentro, in an unknown direction. On the opposite bank of the river frorn the BIOLA T Pakitza station, three native wornen of unknown origins settled and built a typical residential hut. They seerned to be related by the maternal line. Their language could not be understood by any mernber of the local native groups. lt is believed they were expelled frorn their own group located in terra dentro, far away frorn the river. Local natives suggest that reasons for their expulsion could be 1) the breaking of a tribal norrn, or 2) the carrying of incurable deseases. However, other inforrnants (Piro and Machiguenga) suggested that these women escaped from a tribal group representing descendants of the ancient Amarakaeris, locally known as Mashcos, due to their physical defects, This argument is based on the possibilitv that one of thern was born with brain damage, suggesting unexplainable “divine punishment”, which the Mashcos eliminare with the individual’s death. Whatever the explanation, there is little doubt that these Mashco-piro women are expressions of the multi- ethnic composition of the region . Hunting, fishing and small .scale horticulture are the population’s main subsistence activities, Mam¡nals such as tapir, fishes as zúngaro, and slash-and- burn agriculture for corn and manioc are critical ingredients for an efficient subsistence economy (Bunker, 1980; Fearnside, 1986). Outside intervention has allowed the Manu river to gradually become the main connecting route with other ecosystems in the upper and lower lands. This activity has stimulated constant social and economic interactions, thus producing visible changes in the traditional structure of the current local ethnic groups.
Mapping of the Biodiversity
Site at Pakitza
INTRODUCTION : The biodiversity site at Pakitza contains more than 48 kilometers of well marked and documented trails forming a network to provide access to established research zones and other areas of interest. Of the ten established zones, ahd two proposed research zones representing various forest types (Erwin 1991), four have been mapped to record the location of all trees measuring ~lOcm in diameter. Tree plot documents produced in this project show the location of trees within a plot, including the family, genus and species of each tree that could be identified, as well as other pertinent information about the zone or individual plots. Highly detailed maps of the Pakitza site depicting trails, vegetation, location of research zones and other pertinent information have also been produced.
We intend to demonstrate the relevance of computer graphics in documenting research sites. The technology and its application are not only important for publication purposes, but can facilitare in-fíeld research by providing imrnediate information feedback for ground truthing, planning and analysis, both ori-site and in the laboratory. lt is also our intention to make recommendations regarding the use of this technology in future mapping projects.
The process developed for mapping of biodiversity research sites began at the Tambopata, Perú site, in 1982. As fogging and collection data began to accumulate, it became apparent that much of this information would require preparation as visual information for publication, and that sorne fundamental standards should be developed. In 1984, Erwin and Maber, working on an idea that small detailed maps of specific research areas would be helpful in the field, developed a concept for produc;ing maps of tree locations wi thin the rese arch zones ( MABERCARDS), (Erwin 1985). The plan was to record and identifv ali trees that measured ;:c:lOcm at breast height (1 Jm) in each plot within a research zone, and produce a map of these trees to determine species d istribution, growth and loss of trees. These tree locality maps would additionally serve as locators for other researchers, providing XY coordinates for accurately mapping of other data with in the zones. The production of trail maps for the zones followed as a logical consequence to provide overall site and location maps, other áreas of geographical.interest, and guides for our use and that of future researchers.
The task of creating these maps and other graphic support for thís project was given to GLV in support of TLE’s research. Knowing this to be a lengthy project, and having just begun experimenting with computer graphics using a Macintosh computer, GLV decided that the mapping was an appropriate exercise to attempt to see what could be accomplished using this medium. Previously, all support graphics had been laboriously executed in the traditional manner using pen and ink or other media to prepare thern as camera ready art, which was very time consuming. The rapid introduction and development of desktop computer graphics hardware and software allowed increasingly viable and varied solutions to old and new problems. In retrospect, the use of the computer not onl y changed the process of graphic representation dramatically and irrevocably for biodiversity mapping, but how we visualize and process information in other areas of research as well Even at the beginning of this project in 1984, using a personal Macintosh, the quite primitive graphics software available at the time and a dot matrix printer, the process of creating initial maps of fogging locations began to accelerate rlramaticallv. Combining these efforts with sorne minor handwork, acceptable output was obtained for publication purposes. While these early efforts were very crude compared to the graphics being produced toda y, they demonstrated that the technology and the process were workable, allowing easy modification and manipulation of illustrations for publication, as well as providing a graphic database archive that could be used for other purposes. In 1986, a “state of the art” Macintosh system and software for the purpose of creating computer generated support graphics was installed in the Department of Entomology. With this enhanced computer capability, the Biodiversity mapping project was able to reach greater levels of refinement and sophistication, Using advanced Computer Aided Design (CAD), graphing and other software, it was possible to create maps with a high degree of accuracy and functionality in less than half the time they required using traditional methods of pen and ink .
DEVELOPING ZONE AND TREE MAPS : lnventory zones in previously selected forest types are established using t” standard surveying instruments and procedures (Erwin 1985). Once the zones have been determined, each tree in the zone 2″.lOcm in diameter is identified with an aluminum tag on which the zone, plot, and tree number are perrnanently recorded. The location of the trees is determined using a triangulation process The location, diameter and tree identity informa tion, including farnily, ge nus and species if known, are entered into a database lt is from this data base that XY coordinates of the trees were initially ex trapolated for the purposes of creating computer gene in house developed application writ ten in BasicThis early effort created relatively crude bitmaps pro duced on a small inkjet prin ter, which were used for
ground truthing and record pur poses (Erwin and Kabel 1991). In the beginning, GL V used these rough maps and the coor dinate data produced in the field as a reference to create tree dis tribution maps in my original graphics software. Since there were no functional charting soft ware applications at this time, the XY coordinares had to be
positioned on the plot using a ll grid system. Tree symbols and other data were inserted indivi dually by hand using MacDraw,an objectoriented drawing sult was much superior to the bitmaps, and suitable for publication. As charting software became available, it became cvident that the process could be drastically speeded up through its use. In
1987, working with Linda Sims, S.l. Entomo logy, the data were transferred, and accessed using Microsoft Excel, a spreadsheet applica tion that recognized and allowed manipula tion of Dbase tabdelimited files. The use of this application permitted easy sorting, edi ting and formatting of the inforrnation, along with the abilitv to import other data and add to, or modify original files. An example of one of these data files is shown in Table Once the data has been properl y sorted, categorized and appended, i t was imported into charting software to create XY scatter diagrams. Current chartíng software1 has the capabilitv of creating detailed scatter diagrams of the spreadsheet data asa chart picture in effect, a tree map that requires mínima! editing that can be saved in a file format suitable for importing into page layout software, the final step in producing the Tree