DETAILED ITINERARY - MANU PARK LODGE
Manu Rainforest Peru 5 Days/ 4 Night:
Manu Rainforest Peru 6 Days :
Cusco (3,300 m.a.) – Cloud Forest (1,700 m.a.l.) – Amazon Manu Lodge (450 m.a.l.).
Today We leave Cusco very early pick up from your hotel in our private mobility making stops in Ninamarca “chullpas” better known as (pre Inca tombs / lupaca culture). Then we will continue to Paucartambo, a picturesque and colonial town with narrow streets and a beautiful church with an interesting Museum, where they keep their old customs.
After this activity we will ascend to; Acjanaco Pass (3,550 masl), considered the gateway to the entrance to the Manu National Park and the Tres Cruces viewpoint (3700 masl) to observe a beautiful view of the Amazon basin,
We will descend to the jungle of Manu, passing first a dwarf forest then cloudy forest where we will have the opportunity to observe the cock of the rocks (better known as the national bird of Peru), hummingbirds, tragones, flycatchers, hummingbirds, quetzals and the woolly monkey if we are lucky, Bear Eyeglass. As for the flora, we can meet a variety of orchids, mosses, ferns, broccoli, etc.
Throughout our trip enjoying the nature that has a spectacular landscape until arriving at the port of del Manu better known as Atalaya (500 masl). Where our outboard boat awaits us to continue our journey of 50 minutes Rio Abajo of the Mother of God; then we will arrive at our Lodge that is located 10 minutes from the river
Accommodation in their respective rooms dinner.
Night walk inside the manu reserve.
Manu Rainforest Peru Day 2:
Amazon Manu Lodge (450 m.a.l.) – Camping Center Eden :
Today after breakfast we will take our boat to visit the Machuwasi Cocha where in our typical raft of the area we will observe a prehistoric bird called the hoatzin, caimans, turtles, monkeys, capybaras.
Return to our hostel to continue the journey through the Madre de Dios River.
in our outboard boat watching birds, herons, vultures, cormorants, turtles, alligators sunning on fallen logs, capybaras if we are lucky we can see when playing the king of the jungle we will make a stop; Aguas Calientes in the native community of (shintuya) there we will enjoy a refreshing bath with a delicious lunch.
then we will continue the trip in the afternoon we will arrive to our camp
We will make a short walk visiting a marsh,
After dinner night activity to see diversities of species that come out at night in search of their prey return to our camp to rest.
Manu Rainforest Peru Day 3:
Camping Center Eden (250 m.a.s.) – Long Walk in The Forest Manu Park :
Today we will get up early to enjoy a delicious breakfast then we will do a 4 hour hike inside the reserve National Park of Manu, this ecosystem hosts very important conservation species such as; monkeys, birds, wild pigs, toads, ants and medicinal plants of the jungle, giant trees, where our native guide will explain the diversities of jungle species.
Return to Camp Lunch (free time) to take a refreshing swim in the river then visit a lake to make piranha fishing. Catfish, Sardines; After this activity we will visit the mammal lick where we will spend the night in tents on a dinner platform later.
Dinner we will have the opportunity to observe some mammals that come to lick the clay every night.
Manu Rainforest Peru Day 4:
Amazon Manu Lodge – Macaw Clay Lick – pantanal Explorer Manu Park :
We get up very early where we will take our boat river under 30 minutes to see the lick of parrots like blue-headed parrots, yellow-crowned parrots and some Macaws etc that every morning they concentrate to lick the clay that contains enough sodium,
After this activity we return to our hostel to enjoy a delicious breakfast.
Then we will make a 4 hour hike through the primary forest where our native guide will share his knowledge of flora and fauna return shelter and lunch.
We will make a full adrenaline adventure sport the zip line between platforms built on the top of the trees. All the equipment used is of high quality and safe. After sliding at high speed through the treetops of the incredible Amazon rainforest, you can rappel 25 meters to the ground.
After this adventurous activity we will continue the exploration in the pantanal with much diversity, return to the lodge and dinner (bonfire) where our native guide will tell you stories and legends of the jungle.
Manu Rainforest Peru Day 5:
Amazon Manu Lodge Atalay – Back to cusco :
After our delicious breakfast. We will pack our things and then we will board our boat back to Puerto Atalaya where our private mobility is waiting for us to take us back to the city of Cusco. We will arrive around 5:30 – 6:00 p.m.
End of the services of Manu Park Lodge - Manu Rainforest Peru 5 Days/ 4 Night
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The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopeThe amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru ( Manu Rainforest Peru )
CATENAZZI ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) .The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop.
Abstract ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) : We compile a list of all amphibians and reptiles known to occur within Manu National Park, Peru and its buffer zone, located in one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots. Covering approximately 0.01% of the planet’s terrestrial surface, this protected area preserves 155 species of amphibians and 132 species of reptiles, corresponding to 2.2% and 1.5% respectively of the known diversity for these groups. Moreover, Manu National Park preserves natural habitats and populations of one critically endangered (Atelopus erythropus), three endangered (Bryophryne cophites, Pristimantis cosnipatae and Psychrophrynella usurpator), three vulnerable amphibians (Atelopus tricolor, Gastrotheca excubitor, Rhinella manu) and two vulnerable reptiles (Chelonoidis denticulata, Podocnemis unifilis), according to the threat categories of the Red List.
Keywords: herpetofauna, biodiversity hotspots, Cusco Region, Madre de Dios Region, Amazonia ( Manu Rainforest Peru ).
Introduction ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) :The eastern slopes of the Andes have one of the highest diversity of amphibians in the world (Duellman 1999, Stuart et al. 2004), as well as high diversity of reptiles ( 2009). Peru is a mega-diverse country hosting approximately 571 species of amphibians (Frost 2013) and 437 species of reptiles 2013. The most important biodiversity hotspot for amphibians, the Tropical Andes (Myers et al. 2000), runs from north to south along the western half of Peru’s territory Manu Rainforest Peru . Several protected areas have been created in the Peruvian Andes over the past three decades (SERNANP 2010). However, our knowledge of the biodiversity within these areas is very fragmentary Manu Rainforest Peru .
For example in southeastern Peru Manu Rainforest Peru , 10 nationally protected areas extend from the Amazon lowlands in the Department of Madre de Dios to the foothill of the Andes of Cusco and Puno yet none of these areas has a comprehensive list of amphibian and reptiles species Manu Rainforest Peru . One of such areas, Manu National Park (Manu NP), is unique in covering the entire watershed of the Manu river ( Manu Rainforest Peru ), a large tributary to the Alto Madre de Dios river (the upper Madre de Dios river, a tributary to the Madeira river). In the lowland floodplain and terra firme forests along the Manu River, inside Manu Manu Rainforest Peru , several publications reported preliminary lists of amphibians and reptiles known to occur at two sites, Cocha Cashu Biological Station (Rodríguez 1987, 1992, Rodríguez & Cadle 1990) and Pakitza (Morales & McDiarmid 1996). Recent studies have produced extensive lists for Los Amigos Conservation Concession (von May et al. 2006, 2009, 2010). Los Amigos lies outside of Manu ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) , but its northern edge overlaps with the park’s buffer zone. Most of our knowledge about amphibian and reptilian diversity in the Andean foothills comes from studies conducted in the Kosñipata valley (Hurtado & Blanco 1994, Catenazzi & Rodriguez 2001, Catenazzi et al. 2009, 2011, 2012, Lehr & Catenazzi 2008, 2009a, b, unpublished field data), including Villa Carmen and Wayqecha Biological Stations. The upper Kosñipata valley (above 2500-3000 m) is part of Manu Rainforest Peru , but the rest of the valley between Pillahuata (2500 m) and Pillcopata (600 m), along the Paucartambo–Shintuya road, is part of the park’s buffer zone ( Manu Rainforest Peru ).
Despite these studies and preliminary inventories, Manu Rainforest Peru still lacks a comprehensive list of amphibian and reptile taxa. The lack of species lists hinders conservation and management efforts. The upper part of Manu NP is currently experiencing a collapse in amphibian species richness and abundance following the spread of the highly pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Catenazzi et al. 2011) ( Manu Rainforest Peru ). A better knowledge of amphibian diversity and distribution will assist monitoring and mitigation efforts. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to gather data from previous lists, species descriptions, museum records and our own fieldwork in the region to compile a checklist of all amphibians and reptiles that have been found within Manu National Park and its adjacent buffer zone ( Manu Rainforest Peru ).
Methods ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) . Manu National Parkis located in southeastern Peru (Regions of Cusco and Madre de Dios) and covers 17163 km2 of Amazonian lowland, submontane, montane and high-elevation Andean habitats between 150 m and 4200 m elevation ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) . The park protects the entire watershed of the Manu River in the upper Madre de Dios basin. ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) was established in 1973, recognized as a Reserve of Biosphere by the UNESCO in 1977, and pronounced a World Heritage Site in 1987; it is Peru’s second largest national park and it lies in one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots (Myers et al. 2000) Manu Rainforest Peru .
Occurrence of taxa was determined on the basis of the original species descriptions, listings in species descriptions of similar or sympatric taxa, museum records and/or our own fieldwork in the region (Catenazzi & Rodriguez 2001, Duellman & Lehr 2009, von May 2009, von May 2009, 2010, von May & Donnelly 2009, Catenazzi et al. 2011). Some species have not been reported from Manu NP or its buffer zone, but occur both north and south of the area, such that their presence in Manu NP is very likely. These species are (in parenthesis references in
support of the geographic distribution of each species) ( Manu Rainforest Peru ):Rhinella leptoscelis
2009), Hyalinobatrachium carlesvilai .
2009), Dendropsophus bokermanni and D. rossalleni (Duellman
2005), Apostolepis nigroterminata (Harvey 1999), Xenoxybelis boulengeri (Duellman 2005), Xenodon rabdocephalus (Duellman
2005), Micrurus narduccii (Campbell & Lamar 1989), Bothriopsis oligolepis and B. taeniata (Campbell & Lamar 1989), Bothrocophias microphthalmus (Gutberlet & Campbell 2001), Paleosuchus palpebrosus (Duellman 2005). We have also listed 8 frog and one squamate species which are still not described, but known to represent new species Manu Rainforest Peru .
General terrestrial habitat categories follow the references within the squared brackets. For the lowlands (300-500 m), we use forest types that are widely recognized by plant and animal ecologists working in western Amazonia Manu Rainforest Peru.
2006, Griscom et al. 2007). One of these forest types, the floodplain, can be classified in two general categories: mature floodplain forest and early successional floodplain forest ( Manu Rainforest Peru ). However, because species recorded in the early successional forest can also be found in the mature floodplain forest (von May et al. 2010), we simply refer to floodplain forest as the major habitat category representing these two floodplain forest types ( Manu Rainforest Peru ). If a species was primarily associated with a permanent aquatic habitat such as a lake or a river, we referred to that particular aquatic habitat. In contrast, if a species was temporarily associated with smaller aquatic habitats such as temporary ponds or creeks embedded in major terrestrial habitats, we referred to that terrestrial habitat. We did not differentiate between forest types in the Andean piedmont (500-1000 m), where we used the general category of sub-montane Manu Rainforest Peru . For both the lowlands and the foothills of the Andes, we recognized Mauritia flexuosa swamp and bamboo (Guadua spp.) forest as distinct habitats Manu Rainforest Peru . The cloud forest category refers to all montane forests between 1000-3600 m; additional high- elevation habitat types were the high-Andean grasslands or puna, dominated by Stipa ichu, and the montane scrub, which represents elfin forests and xeric vegetation growing on exposed slopes or ridges Manu Rainforest Peru .
For taxonomy we followed Blackburn & Wake (2011) for amphibians, Castoe et al. (2004) for gymnophthalmid lizards, Le et al. (2006) for tortoises and McCord et al. (2001) for chelid turtles.
Results and Discussion ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) . We list 155 species of amphibians (Table 1) and 132 species of reptiles currently known to occur or suspected to occur within Manu Rainforest Peru . The cumulative number of species descriptions by year differs between amphibians and reptiles ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) , because for reptiles the curve reached a number close to the asymptote in the decade of 1960-1970, whereas for amphibians this very same decade corresponded to a sharp increase in the number of new species described for Manu NP. The construction of the Paucartambo- Shintuya road in the late 60s greatly facilitated access to high- elevation and montane habitats Manu Rainforest Peru . William E. Duellman and associates collected along this road from 1971-1975, and subsequently described several new anuran species from this region (Duellman 1976, 1978). Although the cumulative number of amphibians already exceeded the number of reptiles during the decade of 1990-2000, the pattern of accelerated discoveries of new and often endemic amphibian species is still holding up during the current decade Manu Rainforest Peru .
2008, Duellman et al. 2011, Padial et al. 2007, Lehr & Catenazzi
2008, 2009a,b, Lehr & von May 2009, Padial et al. 2012), and we are confident that several more species will be added to this list over the next few years. We expect that the final number of amphibian species will be greater than the number of reptile species, because the diversity of squamates decreases with elevation at a much faster rate than the diversity of anurans Manu Rainforest Peru (Navas 2003). Squamates and anurans constitute the bulk of respectively reptilian and amphibian diversity. Given the wide elevational gradient and large area of montane and high-elevation habitats protected by Manu Rainforest Peru , the greater relative richness of anurans vs. squamates is probably replicated across several watersheds (and not just the Kosñipata watershed), further contributing to the amphibian primacy in species richness Manu Rainforest Peru .
Conservation Remarks ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) . Manu NP preserves natural habitats and populations of one critically endangered (Atelopus erythropus), three endangered (Bryophryne cophites, Pristimantis cosnipatae and Psychrophrynella usurpator), three vulnerable amphibians (Atelopus tricolor, Gastrotheca excubitor, Rhinella manu; von May et al. 2008) and two vulnerable reptiles (Chelonoidis denticulata, Podocnemis unifilis Manu Rainforest Peru , based on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) . It is a place of exceptional biological diversity which currently stands as the protected area with the highest number of species of amphibians and reptiles on the planet: three cecilian, one salamander, 150 anuran, 120 squamate, four crocodilian and eight Manu Rainforest Peru .
Family Species Habitat type ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) .
AROMOBATIDAE ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) *Allobates alessandroi (Grant & Rodríguez, 2001) X X
*Allobates conspicuus (Morales, 2002) X X X
Allobates femoralis (Boulenger, 1884) X X
Allobates trilineatus (Boulenger, 1884 “1883”) X X
BUFONIDAE ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) .Atelopus erythropus Boulenger, 1903 X
Atelopus tricolor Boulenger, 1902 X X
CENTROLENIDAE ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) . Amazophrynella minuta (Melin, 1941) Rhaebo guttatus (Schneider, 1799) Rhinella inca (Stejneger, 1913) Rhinella leptoscelis (Boulenger, 1912)
*Rhinella manu Chaparro, Pramuk & Gluesenkamp, 2007
Rhinella margaritifera (Laurenti, 1768) Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) Rhinella poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845) Rhinella veraguensis (Schmidt, 1857)
Centrolene sabini Catenazzi, von May, Lehr, Gagliardi- X XX
Urrutia & Guayasamin, 2012 X
Hyalinobatrachium bergeri (Cannatella, 1980) X X
Hyalinobatrachium carlesvilai Castroviejo-Fisher, Padial,
Chaparro, Aguayo-Vedia, and De la Riva, 2009 X X
Nymphargus pluvialis (Cannatella & Duellman, 1982) X
*Nymphargus truebae (Duellman, 1976) X X
*Rulyrana spiculata (Duellman, 1976) X X
Teratohyla midas (Lynch & Duellman, 1973) X X
CERATOPHRYIDAE ( Manu Rainforest Peru ). Ceratophrys cornuta (Linnaeus, 1758) X X X
*Telmatobius mendelsoni De la Riva, Trueb & Duellman,
Telmatobius timens De la Riva, Aparicio & Ríos, 2005 X X
DENDROBATIDAE ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) ,Ameerega hahneli (Boulenger, 1884) X X X X
*Ameerega macero (Rodríguez & Myers, 1993) X X
Ameerega picta (Bibron in Tschudi, 1838) X X
Ameerega simulans (Myers, Rodríguez & Icochea, 1998) X X X X
Ameerega trivittata (Spix, 1824) X X X X X
Ranitomeya sirensis Aichinger 1991 X X X
Ranitomeya uakarii Brown et al. 2006 X
HEMIPHRACTIDAE ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) *Gastrotheca antoniiochoai (De la Riva & Chaparro, 2005) X
*Gastrotheca excubitor Duellman & Fritts, 1972 X X
Gastrotheca marsupiata (Dumeril & Bibron, 1841) X X
*Gastrotheca nebulanastes Duellman, Catenazzi &
Blackburn, 2011 X X
Gastrotheca testudinea (Jiménez de la Espada, 1870) X X
*Hemiphractus helioi Sheil & Mendelson, 2001 X X
Hemiphractus scutatus (Spix, 1824) X X
HYLIDAE ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) .Cruziohyla craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957) X
Dendropsophus acreanus (Bokermann, 1964) X X
Dendropsophus allenorum (Duellman & Trueb, 1989) X
Dendropsophus bifurcus (Andersson, 1945) X X
Dendropsophus bokermanni (Goin, 1960) X X
Family Species Habitat typ ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) .
Dendropsophus delarivai (Köhler and Lötters, 2001) Dendropsophus koechlini (Duellman & Trueb, 1989) Dendropsophus leali (Bokermann, 1964) Dendropsophus leucophyllatus (Beireis, 1783) Dendropsophus marmoratus (Laurenti, 1768) Dendropsophus minutus (Peters, 1872) Dendropsophus parviceps (Boulenger, 1882) Dendropsophus rhodopeplus (Günther, 1858) Dendropsophus riveroi (Cochran & Goin, 1970) Dendropsophus rossalleni (Goin, 1959) Dendropsophus sarayacuensis (Shreve, 1935) Dendropsophus schubarti (Bokermann, 1963) Dendropsophus triangulum (Günther, 1869) Hyloscirtus armatus (Boulenger, 1902)
Hyloscirtus phyllognathus (Melin, 1941) Hypsiboas boans (Linnaeus, 1758) Hypsiboas calcaratus (Troschel, 1848) Hypsiboas cinerascens (Spix, 1824) Hypsiboas fasciatus (Günther, 1858) Hypsiboas geographicus (Spix, 1824) X X
Hypsiboas gladiator Köhler, Koscinski, Padial, Chaparro,
Handford, Lougheed, and De la Riva, 2010 X X
Hypsiboas lanciformis Cope, 1871 “1870”
Hypsiboas punctatus (Schneider, 1799) X X X X
Osteocephalus castaneicola Moravec, Aparicio, Guerrero-
Reinhard, Calderón, Jungfer, and Gvoždík, 2009 X X X X
Osteocephalus buckleyi (Boulenger, 1882) Osteocephalus cf. leprieurii (Duméril & Bibron, 1841) Osteocephalus mimeticus (Melin, 1941)
Osteocephalus taurinus Steindachner, 1862
Phyllomedusa atelopoides Duellman, Cadle & Cannatella, 1988
Phyllomedusa bicolor (Boddaert, 1772)
Phyllomedusa camba De la Riva, 1999
Phyllomedusa palliata Peters, 1873
Phyllomedusa tomopterna (Cope, 1868)
Phyllomedusa vaillantii Boulenger, 1882
Scarthyla goinorum (Bokermann, 1962) Scinax chiquitanus (De la Riva, 1990) Scinax garbei (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926) X X
Scinax ictericus Duellman & Wiens, 1993
Scinax pedromedinae (Henle, 1991) Scinax ruber (Laurenti, 1768) Sphaenorhynchus dorisae (Goin, 1957) X X X X
Sphaenorhynchus lacteus (Daudin, 1800)
Trachycephalus coriaceus (Peters, 1867) X X
LEIUPERIDAE LEPTODACTYLIDAE ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) .Trachycephalus resinifictrix (Goeldi, 1907) Trachycephalus venulosus (Laurenti, 1768) Edalorhina perezi Jimenez de la Espada, 1870
Engystomops freibergi (Donoso-Barros, 1969) Pleurodema marmoratum (Duméril & Bibron, 1840) Leptodactylus andreae Müller, 1923
Leptodactylus bolivianus Boulenger, 1898 X X X X
Family Species Habitat type
Leptodactylus didymus Heyer, Garcia-Lopez & Cardoso,
Leptodactylus griseigularis (Henle, 1981)
Leptodactylus hylaedactylus (Cope, 1868) X
Leptodactylus knudseni Heyer, 1972 X X X
Leptodactylus leptodactyloides (Andersson, 1945) X X
Leptodactylus lineatus (Schneider, 1799) X X
Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768) X X X X
Leptodactylus petersii (Steindachner, 1864) X X X X X
Leptodactylus rhodomystax Boulenger, 1884 “1883” X X X X
Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Günther, 1868) X X X
Leptodactylus stenodema Jiménez de la Espada, 1875 X X
MICROHYLIDAE ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) Altigius alios Wild, 1995 X
Chiasmocleis bassleri Dunn, 1949 X X
Chiasmocleis ventrimaculata (Andersson, 1945) X X X X
Ctenophryne geayi Mocquard, 1904 X X
Elachistocleis muiraquitan Nunes de Almeida & Toledo, 2012 X
Hamptophryne boliviana (Parker, 1927) X X
Syncope antenori Walker, 1973 X X X
PIPIDAE Pipa pipa (Linnaeus, 1758) X X
STRABOMANTIDAE ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) *Bryophryne cophites (Lynch, 1975) X X
*Bryophryne nubilosus Lehr & Catenazzi, 2008 X X
*Bryophryne hanssaueri Lehr & Catenazzi, 2009 X
Noblella sp. X
Noblella cf. myrmecoides (Lynch, 1976) X X X X
*Noblella pygmaea Lehr & Catenazzi, 2009 X X X
Oreobates cruralis (Boulenger, 1902) X X X X
*Oreobates gemcare Padial, Chaparro, Castroviejo-Fisher, Guayasamin, Lehr, Delgado, Vaira, Teixeira, Aguayo-Vedia, and De la Riva, 2012
Oreobates granulosus (Boulenger, 1903) X X
Oreobates quixensis Jiménez de la Espada, 1872 X X X X
Pristimantis altamazonicus (Barbour & Dunn, 1921) X X X X X
*Pristimantis buccinator (Rodríguez, 1994) X X X X
Pristimantis carvalhoi (Lutz in Lutz & Kloss, 1952) X X X
*Pristimantis cosnipatae (Duellman, 1978) X X
Pristimantis croceoinguinis (Lynch, 1968) X X
*Pristimantis danae (Duellman, 1978) X X X
Pristimantis diadematus (Jimenez de la Espada, 1875) X X
Pristimantis divnae Lehr & von May, 2009 X X
Pristimantis fenestratus (Steindachner, 1864) X X
Pristimantis imitatrix (Duellman, 1978) X X
Pristimantis lacrimosus (Jimenez de la Espada, 1875) X X
*Pristimantis lindae (Duellman, 1978) X X
Pristimantis mendax (Duellman, 1978) X X
Pristimantis mercedesae (Lynch & McDiarmid, 1987) X X
Pristimantis ockendeni (Boulenger, 1912) X X X
Pristimantis olivaceus (Köhler, Morales, Lötters, Reichle
& Aparicio, 1998) X X X
*Pristimantis pharangobates (Duellman, 1978) X X X
Pristimantis platydactylus (Boulenger, 1903) X
Pristimantis reichlei Padial & De la Riva, 2009 X X X X X X
*Pristimantis salaputium (Duellman, 1978) X X
*Pristimantis skydmainos (Flores & Rodriguez, 1997) X
Pristimantis tantanti (Lehr, Torres-Gastello & Suárez-
Segovia, 2007) X
Pristimantis toftae (Duellman, 1978) X X X X X X
Pristimantis ventrimarmoratus (Boulenger, 1912) X X
Psychrophrynella sp. 1 X X
Psychrophrynella sp. 2 X
*Psychrophrynella usurpator De la Riva, Chaparro &
Padial, 2008 X X X
Strabomantis sulcatus (Cope, 1874) X X X X
PLETHODONTIDAE ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) . Bolitoglossa altamazonica (Cope, 1874) X X X X Order Gymnophiona
CAECILIIDAE ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) .Oscaecilia bassleri (Dunn, 1942) X
Siphonops annulatus (Mikan, 1820) X
RHINATREMATIDAE ( Manu Rainforest Peru ) . Epicrionops bicolor Boulenger, 1883s of the Andes, Peru